Ambient Water Quality Monitoring Data
When toxic substances enter Lakes, streams, rivers and other water bodies they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of water deteriorates affecting ecosystem. Pollutants can also seep down and affect ground water. The city sewage and industrial waste are major contribution to water pollution. Very less percentage of waste water generated is treated and the rest is discharged as it is in water bodies. Agricultural runoff or water from fields that drain into rivers is another major pollutant as it contains fertilizers and pesticides.
The water quality management in India is accomplished under the provision of Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974. The basic objective of this Act is to maintain and restore the wholesomeness of natural aquatic resource by prevention and control of pollution.
In order to assess the nature and extent of pollution and measures needed to control it. Water Quality Monitoring is an important prerequisite: the objectives being:
1. Evaluate Water Quality trend over a period of time.
2. Assess assimilative capacity of water body thereby reducing cost on pollution control.
3. Asses the fitness of water for different uses.
4. Rational Planning of Pollution Control Strategies and their prioritisation.
5. Evaluate effectiveness of pollution control measures already in existence
National Water Monitoring Network (NWMP)
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) Delhi in collaboration with Jammu & Kashmir State Pollution Control Board, Jammu has established water quality monitoring network at 27 stations covering 5 Districts of Jammu region. The network covers Six Rivers(Tawi, Chenab, Banganga, Basantar, Ujh, Devak at Udhampur and Utterbehni), Two Lakes (Mansar and Surinsar), Two Wells (Dug Well, Gaghwal and Tubewell at SICOP, Kathua) One Pond (Maladhar Talab Hatli, Kathua) and a Wetland (Gharana, R.S. Pura). Water Quality monitoring is done on quarterly basis in surface water bodies while on Half yearly basis in ground water station. Water samples are being analyzed for 24 Physico-Chemical Parameters for water samples apart from Field Observation.
Field Observation: Weather, Approximate Depth of main steam, Colour, Odour, Visible Effluent Discharge, Human activities around station, Station Detail, Temperature, Dissolved Oxygen(DO).
Core Parameters: pH, Conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand(BOD), Nitrate-N, Nitrite-N.
General Parameters: Chemical Oxygen Demand(COD), Ammonia-N, Total Dissolved solids, Total Suspended solids, turbidity, Total Hardness, Fluoride, boron, Chloride, sulphate, Total alkalinity, Phenolphthalein alkalinity, Phosphate, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium.
River Tawi is an important tributary of river Chenab which originates from Himalayan glacier. It finally meets Chenab River in Pakistan. River Tawi originate from the lapse of Kali Kund Glacier and adjoining ares, southwest of Bhaderwah in Doda. Length of the river is 141 km while catchment area is delineated by latitude 320 35' -3305' N and Longitude 740 -35' - 750 45' E. The catchment area of the rives up to Indian border(Jammu) is 2168 Km2 and falls within districts of Jammu, Udhampur and small part of Doda District. Flow of the river varies significantly during monsoon and non-monsoon seasons. Maximum flow of the river is during monsoon period while during non-monsoon period it cannot be designated as continuous river. River water is used both for abstractive (pumping out for drinking purpose or irrigation) and in stream uses(Bathing, Wasing clothes)