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Construction and Demolition Waste Management

India is urbanizing faster than its urban planners can handle. Swachh Bharat Mission (MoUD) envisages processing of 100% solid waste generated in cities / towns as a key objective, which includes Construction and Demolition (C & D) wastes. There are uncertainties in estimating the quantum of C & D waste generation, which can be attributed to several factors, viz. different methods adopted to estimate quantum of C&D waste generated, varying pace of developmental activities in cities, redevelopment in cities including demolition activities due to rapid urbanization. Studies indicate that composition of C & D waste is project specific. It is estimated to account for approx. 25 - 30 percent of total solid waste generated.

The 2018 “Ready Reckoner” on CDW generation released by the Buildings Materials & Technology Promotion Council (BMTPC), MoHUA estimates that 100 million tonnes of CDW is the closest approximation for nationwide generation of which only 5% is treated.

Construction and Demolition Waste (also referred to as C&D Waste) is defined by the C&D Rules, 2016 as the waste comprising of building materials, debris and rubble resulting from construction, remodeling, repair and demolition of any civil structure. The activities that mainly generate C&D Waste are 

 (i)   Construction of new buildings;

(ii)  Renovation of existing buildings;

(iii) Demolition of old buildings;

(iv) Excavation / laying of asphalt/concrete roads

(v) Installation and service of public utilities (telephone/water/electricity/sewage pipelines)

The composition of C&D Waste is city-specific as well as project-specific and differs according to the rate of urbanization, the pace of developmental activity and re-development of the city. The composition also varies according to the project and depends on the age and type of building    

If measures to minimize and handle the C& D waste are not developed and efficiently adopted, it may threat the environment as well as sustainability of Indian Construction Industry.

Environmental impacts due to indiscriminate disposal of C & D wastes in cities

 As per C & D wastes Rules (Sub-Rule (4) of Rule 4), there should be no littering or deposition of construction and demolition waste so as to prevent obstruction to the traffic or the public or drains. Various environmental impacts that can be caused due to indiscriminate dumping of same are listed as below:

         i)      Visually annoying

ii)     Low lying areas / abandoned quarries, vacant plots or sometimes even the outskirts of city often become targets for dumping debris

iii)    Roadside dumping leads to unhealthy scenes and traffic chaos

iv)    Indiscriminate disposal along river banks or dumping in drains (nallahs) hampers flow thereby encouraging mosquitoes breeding / floods.

v)      Illegal dumping to fill up water bodies / wetlands around urban centres for creating land for real estate development.

vi)    Open / haphazard dumping on dumping sites leads to small life of such dumping sites.

       vii)   Disposal in dumper placers in absence of separate collection leads to loss of reusable items/ compostable items and unusually                       heavy bins making it troublesome for local bodies to lift such bins.

Actions taken towards implementation of C&D Waste Management Rules, 2016

 i) Specific dumping sites for Construction and Demolition waste have been identified by eight local bodies, viz., Jammu Municipal Corporation, MC, Kathua, Udhampur and Poonch in Jammu Province and Srinagar Municipal Corporation, MC, Aanatnag, Sumbal and Sopore in Kashmir Region. 

ii) Environmental cells have been set up by Jammu Municipal Corporation and Srinagar Municipal Corporation with issuance of public notice for general public to comply under Byelaws and directions issued by corporations.

iii)Policy and strategy on Management of C&D waste notified vide order No. 70-JK (HUD) of 2020.