Municipal Solid Waste Management
One of the major problems being faced by cities and towns relate to management of municipal solid waste (MSW). Due to growing population, not only in the urban areas but also in rural areas, the environmental problem arising from unscientific and indiscriminate disposal of municipal garbage is a real menace for the whole society.
Waste quantities are increasing and municipal authorities are not able to upgrade or scale up the facilities required for proper management of such wastes. In many cities and towns, garbage is littered on roads and foot-paths. Citizens are also not accustomed to use the available storage facilities (dust bins) set up by the authorities. At large, lack of organized system of house-to-house collection of waste has created the littering habits.
Municipal solid waste (MSW), also called Urban Solid Waste, and is a waste type that includes predominantly household waste (domestic waste) with sometimes the addition of commercial wastes, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets collected by a municipality within a given area. They are in either solid or semisolid form and generally exclude industrial hazardous wastes.
2.0 Issue relating to Management of MSW
The key issues relating to management of MSW in the country are briefed as under:
(i) There is no comprehensive short and long term plan with municipal authorities to handle MSW in accordance with the MSW Rules, 2000.
(ii) Majority of the municipal authorities do not have preparedness to set up waste processing and disposal facilities.
(iii) Cities and towns, in future, will not get wastelands for further dumping of wastes. In fact, there will be a need to go for ‘total’ recycling and re-use of waste and aim for negligible or ‘Zero Waste’ for landfilling.
The Central Government notified the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules 2000 under Sections 3, 6 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act 1986 for the purpose of managing municipal and urban wastes/garbage in an environmentally sound manner. Every municipal authority is responsible to develop a system for scientific disposal of garbage through composting and engineered landfill.
3.0Responsibilities as under Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016
With the notification of Solid Wastes Management Rules, 2016 under Environment Protection Act, 1986 superseding the erstwhile Rules on the subject, duties and responsibilities of Urban local bodies, village Panchayats, waste generators and other related stakeholders have been fixed and defined.
1) Every local authority and village Panchayat to
a) Prepare and submit waste management plan to respective departments of State Government within six months from date of notification of these Rules.
b) Frame byelaws within one year from date of notification of these Rules.
c) Arrange door to door collection of waste by authorised waste pickers or self help groups.
d) Set up “Material Recovery Facilities” for sorting of different types of wastes in colored bins and provide easy access to informal or authorised waste pickers.
e) Set up “ Waste deposition centres for domestic hazardous waste” in a manner that one centre is set up for an area of 20 sq. Km.
f) Promote decentralised compost plants or bio-methanation plants to manage waste generated from Vegetable, Fruit, Meat, Poultry and fish market within the market area and also promote on-site processing of garden waste.
g) Promote household level /community level composting, biogas generation.
h) Phase out use of chemical fertilizers in two years and use compost in all parks and gardens.
i) Facilitate construction, operation and maintenance of solid waste processing facilities and associated infrastructure with maximum utilisation of all components of solid waste and preference shall be given to decentralized processing such as Biomethanation plants, composting, waste to energy processes including RDF.
j) Apply in Form I to seek authorization for setting up of waste processing and disposal facility , if the volume of waste is exceeding five metric tonnes per day including landfills from State Pollution Control Board.
k) Furnish its annual report in Form –IV on or before 30th April of every year to Commissioner or Director, Municipal administration for further submission to concerned Secretary-in-charge and SPCB before 31st of May.
l) To organise awareness programmes for segregation of wastes and shall promote recycling or reuse of segregated materials with objective of “Zero waste” going to landfills.
2) Every waste generator to
a) Segregate and store the waste in three different streams namely bio-degradable, non bio-degradable and domestic hazardous waste in suitable bins and handover to authorised waste pickers.
b) Wrap securely used sanitary waste like sanitary napkins and diapers in pouches provided by manufacturers of these products and put in bin meant for Non biodegradable waste.
c) Not to litter or burn the waste on streets, open public places, drains or nallahs.
d) Store separately the construction and demolition waste / garden waste and dispose off as per instructions of Municipal body.
e) To pay user fee as specified by Municipal authority.
f) Not to organise an event or gathering of more than 100 persons at any unlicensed place without intimating the local body, at least three days in advance and shall ensure source waste segregation.
g) All resident welfare and market associations / gated communities and institutions with more than 5000 sq. Km area / hotels and restaurants to ensure source segregation , handing over of recyclable waste to authorised waste pickers in partnership with local body and ensure processing of biodegradable waste by composting or bio-methanation within their premises as far as possible.
3) Every brand owner/ manufacturer of disposable products and sanitary napkins and diapers to
a) Provide necessary financial assistance to local authorities for establishment of waste management system.
b) Put in place collection mechanism for Non-biodegradable products, viz., tin, glass and plastic packaging generated from their products and
c) Provide a pouch or wrapper for disposal of each napkin or diapers alongwith the packet of their sanitary products and educate masses for wrapping and disposal of their products.
Checklist of information to be submitted along with MSW Authorization Application
For Cosent to Establish
1.Detailed Project Report entailing information on
i) Location Plan, Site Plan, Distance from habitation, river, water bodies etc.
ii) Quantum of generation of organic and inorganic MSW
iii)Environment related information as required under the Rules
iv)Proposed Methodology of waste processing
2. Permission and views expressed by District Collector, Town Planning Authority, Ground water
Board, District Development Authority and Airport Authority about proposed site.
3. Distance from water bodies, Forest land, National Park, Wet land, Historical places,
Habitation and Monuments etc.
4. Site Clearance certificate from Revenue department based on decision taken by the
Committee appointed by District Collector.
Municipal Authority or an operator of a facility shall seek Consent under Water and Air Act for authorization
Location criteria for Landfills as per Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization and MSW guidelines published by Ministry of Urban Development
· No landfill within 200 m of a lake or pond
· No landfill within 100 m from river
· No landfill within flood prone areas
· No landfill within 200m of right of way of any state or National Highway.
· No landfill within 500 m from a notified habitant area.
· No landfill within 300 m of public park
· No landfills within wetlands
· No landfill within 20 km of an airport or airbase.
· No landfill in a coastal regulation zone
· No landfill in potentially unstable zones
· Landfill should have a buffer zone around it up to a distance 500m or as prescribed by the regulatory agencies.
· Exclude the areas with unstable geological features such as weak soils organic
Soils or soft clay or clay-sand mixtures or soils that lose strength with compaction or with wetting, etc.
· Exclude the areas with high population, unique archaeological, historical, paleontological and religious interests
· Exclude areas of ground water recharge and extremely high water table zone
· Exclude areas prone to natural hazards such as volcanic activity, seismic disturbance and landslides
· Exclude areas with subsidence such as owing to subsurface mines; water, oil or gas withdrawal; or solution-prone subsurface
· Exclude agricultural/forest areas
In exceptional cases, the committee may consider certain sites if it has reasons to believe that the proposed mitigation measures can ensure anticipated impacts within the acceptable limits.
key to processing of cases to seek consent / authorization for Solid Waste management facilities
i. In facilities where Vermicomposting is not an integral part of landfill site and landfill site is located away, both cases shall be dealt separately. No EIA and consent is required for Vermicomposting facility, hence no consent fees. Such cases shall be processed for authorization only [Refer to Rule No. 3(ii)].
Documents to be submitted for seeking authorization for Vermicomposting facility:
1. Application Form for authorization
2. Detailed Project report.
3. Certificate of Land allotment from Revenue Department and Site map.
Whereas landfill sites shall be processed for rapid EIA, consent under E (P) Act, 1986 and authorization.
ii. In facilities where Vermicomposting is an integral part of landfill site, complete case shall be considered as a whole and case shall be processed for rapid Environmental Impact Assessment, i.e., EIA, followed by consent under E(P) Act, 1986 and authorization. The application form for consent can be procured from regional office / respective district offices, J&K SPCB, by submitting a demand draft of Rs 100/- drawn in favour of Member Secretary, J&K SPCB and it is to be submitted alongwith consent fees. Further, necessary documents that are required to be submitted alongwith the application are mentioned as below
1. Application form for consent to establish/ operate
2. Consent fees as per the project cost ( See last page of consent form, S.No. 10)
3. Detailed Project report.
4. Certificate of Land allotment from Revenue Department and Site map.
5. NOC from other concerned agencies such as Ground water board, District Authorities and airport authorities ( if any).
NOTE: ALL THE DOCUMENTS TO BE SUBMITTED IN THREE SETS.
Documents to be submitted to seek environmental clearance:
1. Form 1 as under E (P) Act (Annexure VII under Link http://environmentclearance.nic.in)
2. Pre – feasibility report (Environment Management Plan)
4. Land papers