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Dairy Waste Management


Ecologically sound & economically viable technological solutions are being promoted across the country to handle various types of bio-wastes to achieve targets of “Zero waste” & maximum recovery of materials.  Further, when it is the issue of dairy waste, which is itself world’s best organic fertilizer, only awareness among dairy owners combined with strict implementation by concerned local bodies is required to prevent this valuable resource ending up in drains and leading to odor pollution/ water pollution.

 According the Union Government’s department of animal husbandry, dairying and fisheries, “Cattle urine is also a powerful natural pesticide and, if used properly, can save human beings from the harmful effects of pesticide residues.”

Case studies in India

Farmers in Guntur district are using fermented cow urine mixed with neem leaves extract as organic pesticide. The Gir breed of cows from Gujarat is preferred for this purpose, as it is believed that its milk and urine have more medicinal and insecticidal properties respectively.

In 2016, Sikkim became India’s first fully organic State where cow dung and urine are being used for farming purposes. Organic cultivation does not involve the use of chemical pesticides and fertilisers and thus helps maintain a harmonious balance among the various complex ecosystems. Also, it has improved the quality of the soil which further improves the standards of the crops produced there. Within 1.24 million tonnes of organic production in the country around 80,000 million is supplied by Sikkim alone.

 Organic nutrients can be obtained from the fermentation of cow urine thereby enhancing soil fertility. In addition, it can be turned into liquid fertiliser as a pesticide for crops. Liquid manure from cow urine is very easy and does not take long and is good for plants compared with artificial fertiliser. The materials used to make liquid fertiliser are also easily available and relatively low cost  as per Indian council of Agriculture Research.

Environmental impacts of improper disposal of Dairy products

Fig. a: Canal filled with cow dung


Ø  Being organic in nature, cow dung when enters water bodies BOD value of water can rise drastically leading to slow death of water bodies due to eutrophication.

Ø  Contribution to global warming due to emission of greenhouse gases from decomposition of dung lying in open.

Ø  Odour pollution, unaesthetic view & loss of precious resource, when washed into the drains. So, it is important to manage this resource in scientific manner without causing damage to vital components of environment and save human life.

Scientific Management of dairy waste

 The over-dependence on fossil fuels as primary energy source has led to myriads of problems such as global climatic change, environmental degradation and various human health problems.  Global warming caused by energy generation from fossil fuel has accelerated the deployment of re-newable fuels such as biogas. Biogas is one of the renewable and sustainable alternative resources that significantly reduce green-house-gas emission compared to the emission of landfill gas to the atmosphere .

 Management of precious dairy waste can be done by using very simple technologies and in a very cost effective manner depending upon the number of cattle heads, space and budget.

In compliance to Hon’ble NGT in O.A No. 46/2018, Guidelines have been published by CPCB for management of waste in dairy farms and gaushalas within prescribed time period. Form A’ annexed in the guidelines has to be maintained by all dairy farm and gaushala operators which shall be compiled by PCB  after verification of the premises.

Public Notice has also been issued in this context, which is reproduced as below:

Implementation of directions issued by Hon’ble NGT in O.A No. 46/2018 for seeking Consent to Establish and Consent to Operate for Dairy Farms / Gaushalas-regd.

It is hereby notified for all the operators / owners of dairy farms / gaushalas in Union Territory of J&K that as per Hon’ble NGT directions and as per subsequent Guidelines issued by CPCB regarding waste management in dairy farms & gaushalas, following mandatory compliance shall be made by each concerned:

1.  All Dairy Farms and Gaushalas Operators shall obtain Consent to Establish   (CTE) / Consent to Operate (CTO) under Water Act, 1974 as well as Air Act, 1981 under Orange & Green category respectively.

2.  Stand alone or isolated Dairy Farm, having 15 animals & above shall obtain Consent to Establish   (CTE) /Consent to Operate (CTO) under “Orange category”.

3.   Dairy Farms in colonies / clusters should obtain CTE/CTO under Orange category.

4.  Gaushalas with 100 KLD or more overall wastewater generation shall be categorized as “Orange Category”.

5All Dairy farms and Gaushalas Operators shall follow the “Guidelines for Environmental Management of Dairy Farms and Gaushalas”       issued by CPCB recently, which have been uploaded on JK PCB website at www.jkspcb.nic.in.

In the light of above directions, all Dairy Farms & Gaushalas Operators are directed to apply for the consent of JK PCB through the online portal (jkocmms.nic.in) within one month time (30 days) from date of issuance of this notice.

“Environmental Compensation” shall be levied in case of any violation of environmental norms under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 & Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 and Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986.